• Determinants of functional effectiveness and durability of road transport enterprises
    Vol 73 (2017)

    Transportation’s technical and organisational complexity differentiates transport branches and technologies. This complexity, in connection with legal regulations, general features of business entities (long-term nature of their activity and the goal of multiplying their value), and market conditions (e.g. competitiveness), raise many problems in the decision-making process of the managers of companies providing commercial transport services, as well as many doubts among researchers specialised in this area. Thus, the basic cognitive problems presented in this publication by the researchers of the Chair of Economics and Management of Transport Companies focus on answering the questions about the accuracy of mechanisms and ways of providing economic efficiency and durability of road freight companies, both in the short and long run. 

    The seven articles included in this issue refer to the question of the conditions of management efficiency and functional sustainability of road freight companies. The first, introductory article, entitled “Functional Efficiency and Stability of Road Transport Enterprises”, defines the conditions of a company’s efficiency and stability and the measures of its partial objectives, such as effectiveness, functionality, productivity, profitability, or earning capacity, and points to the flexibility of the terms “efficiency” and “stability” – because although road transport enterprises in general do not vary from other economic entities, their partial functional measures, measures of their effectiveness and stability, and the laws of the transport market are specific. Hence the following articles, based on the universal features of entities active in the discussed area, identify the specificity of road transport enterprises in the context of regulatory, market, operational, social, economic, financial, and – last but to least – systemic conditions that build the effectiveness and stability of commercial transport service providers. All articles in the present issue were based on data collected from the analysed entities and studied in a manner appropriate for the area in question. 

    The statistical population of the study, Polish road transport enterprises, was established on the basis of PKD (Polish Classification of Business Activities) and the database of the National Business Registry (REGON), which includes enterprises providing transport services with vehicles of total mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes, despite their substantial omission in the Act on Road Transport. From this population, using a sequence of pseudorandom numbers, a sample of 68 enterprises was created from which data was collected through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). The respondents were asked 31 questions: some closed and some half-open, some single- and some multiple-choice. As a result, 57 variables were identified: 35 qualitative variables measured on a nominal scale and 22 quantitative variables measured on a ratio scale. The data was exported to an .xls spreadsheet, edited, and subjected to a preliminary analysis in MS Excel 2013. For the purpose of statistical inference, 62 observations were taken into account, 6 were rejected because of gaps or inaccuracy in the given information. IBM SPSS 23 was used for statistical inference. Before further analysis, the variables measured on a ratio scale were verified for consistency with normal distribution using the Lilliefors test and the Shapiro-Wilk test. On this basis, tests for further verification were selected. The relation between the two nominal variables was established with the use of multiway analysis tables supported by the analysis of Cramér’s V and the Chisquare test of independence. The differences between the means for two groups were verified with the use of t-test for independent samples for homogeneous or heterogeneous variances, depending on the result of Levene’s test. The differences between the means for more than two groups were verified using one-way ANOVA after determining whether the variances in the groups are homogeneous using Levene’s test and the Brown–Forsythe test. It was assumed that the condition of similar size of groups is fulfilled if none of the groups is more than twice as large as any other group. If the assumptions of parametric tests were not met, the differences between groups were assessed with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test. The t-test for the verification of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was applied during the correlation analysis to check the relation between the variables measured on a ratio scale. In all tests, the standard significance level is 0.05.

  • Economics of transport and transportation services market
    Vol 70 (2017)

    The team at the Chair of Transportation Market at the University of Gdańsk together with authors from other academic units are proud to present the first, English edition of the Research Journal of the University of Gdańsk. Transport Economics and Logistics. The hereby issue belongs to the series of Transport Economics and Transportation Services Market and contains 11 articles discussing economic and transportation issues as well as operations within the service market. The presented topics are the result of research work of the authors. The topics are divided among four chapters, namely: Transport in the European Union, The air transport market, The public transport services market and Functioning of other markets.

    The first chapter contains two articles under the following titles: Lobbying on transport on the European Union Forum and EU structural funds in Central & Eastern Europe: transport and urban mobility overview. The authors (D. Rucińska, I. Kur and A. Perchel) focus their discussion on the EU practices of lobbying for transport and the funding of sustainable development of transport and mobility in Central and Eastern Europe.

    The second chapter contains two articles connected with the aviation market. The authors (D. Rucińska, A. Ruciński) present the issue of synergic development of air transport and settlement structures in an article entitled The evolution of the interdependence of the development of airports and settlement structures. The topic is of particular importance with regards to the development of airport landside in the 21st century, in which strong inter-relations of the development of airports and settlement structures can be observed. In the article entitled Connectivity in air transport networks: an assessment of the Polish aviation market D. Tłoczyński carries out a fascinating analysis and evaluation of the operations on the air transport market as well as the influence the network of connections has on its development.

    The third chapter consists of five interesting articles connected with the development and operations of urban transport. In the first of the five, entitled Car sharing as an element of sustainable urban mobility: conlcusions for Polish cities the author, M. Wołek, justifies the practicality behind the introduction of the car sharing solution in order to increase the effectiveness of car usage within urban areas. In his work, he quotes findings from research conducted in the USA and Western Europe which point to the potential car sharing has to substitute private cars as well as in the increase in the numbers of green e-cars. In their article entitled The structure of demand and its economic consequences for urban transport K. Grzelec and O. Wyszomirski present findings of research into the structure of demand for public urban transport and its economic consequences in the selected Polish cities of Grudziądz, Jelenia Góra, Rzeszów, and Włocławek. Another article, entitled Tariffs and ticketing integration of collective public transport in the region at the example of Pomorskie Voivodeship, sees authors H. Kołodziejski and O. Wyszomirski explain the conditions and project of tariff and fare integration of public urban transport within the Pomerania voivodship. Their deliberations suggest that the basis for the introduction of a uniform tariff and fares that would be operational and satisfactory to passengers can be found in an integration of payment rules that would result from the data on completed journeys and be acceptable by the parties involved in unification. The authors emphasized that the introduction of an e-ticket, which would gather such data, is being planned for the Pomerania voivodship. The aim of the next article written by K. Hebel and O. Wyszomirski and entitled Time of urban travel of the inhabitants of Gdynia in the light of research which was based on primary research, is to publish information regarding the duration, structure, and changes in the duration of urban trips in the years 2005–2015. Authors A. Jagiełło and P. Gałka in their article entitled Impact of changes in organization of trolleybus line No. 29 in Gdynia on passengers’ travel behaviour, also present their own research into the influence of the changes in organisation of the 29 trolleybus line on the transport behaviour of inhabitants, focusing mainly on inhabitants of the residential area Fikakowo in Gdynia. The authors emphasise that the changes in organisation of public transport determine the transport behaviour of inhabitants within cities and may constitute a substantial reason behind the resignation from travelling by car in favour of public transport. The authors also turn our attention to the fact that the introduction of vehicles equipped with a battery power source marks the evolution of trolleybus transport towards electric buses transport which is to be launched in this city.

    The fourth chapter of articles consists of two works entitled Over capacity of container shipping as a challenge to rail silk road competitiveness (S. Miecznikowski, T. Radzikowski) and Determinants of the quality of service on the road freight market – an interdisciplinary approach (D. Rucińska, M. Kędzior-Laskowska). The authors of the fist article focus their attention on the issue connected with the increase in the effectiveness of cargo transport between the Far East and Europe. They point to the New Silk Road and rail transport as an alternative to the prolonged sea transport of freight.

    The authors of the second article identify the factors which shape the quality of services in road freight transport focusing on chosen aspects of the business activity of operators. On the basis of their research they presented the key determinants leading to the improvement of the quality of services provided.

    It is hoped that the wide spectrum of discussion as well as the findings of unique research will provide an interesting read to all those interested in the issues of the operations, transformations, and development of contemporary transport as well as its branch markets. The conclusions and recommendations were formed on the basis of the presumption that it will be of interest to all participants of the transport market in addition to fulfilling an educational role within the field of transport and logistics. Therefore, the Authors recommend this Journal to readers of an academic background, those involved in business activity within transportation, as well as decision makers and students of transport, logistics, economic geography, and functional space management. 

    We would like to thank the reviewers of the volume: Prof. Dr. Christiane Trüe from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen and the School of International Business/Germany and Prof. Dr. Sc. Victor Myronenko from the Transport Institute of State University of Infrastructure and Technologies in Kyiv/Ukraine for valuable comments and reviews.

    On behalf of all the authors I would like to recommend this interesting issue of the Research Journal UG ETiL. 

    Scientific Editor
    Professor Danuta Rucińska

  • Transport development challenges in the 21 century - multidimensional approach
    Vol 67 (2017)

    We give the readers this Scientific Paper devoted to the issues of modern transport research and the challenges of transport development. It contains articles submitted to the TranSopot 2017 conference. This conference is a continuation of a long series of conferences focused on the topic of transport sector development. The purpose of the conference is to exchange views on the major challenges for transport growth and discuss the modern directions of transport development. Another important goal is to integrate scientists and transport practitioners in the field of transport, forwarding and logistics. An additional aim is to publish the research results and discuss new research areas. The TranSopot 2017 conference: “Transport Development Challenges in the 21st century” was held from 29th May to 31st May 2017 at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Gdańsk. This issue contains 10 articles submitted to the conference. The contents of the journal are divided into three dimensions: sectoral, local/city and enterprise dimensions. The first part contains articles discussing sectoral issues. The second part deals with local aspects and challenges of transport, concerning mainly transport in cities. And the third part includes articles addressing issues at the enterprise level. The multidimensionality and complexity of transport issues requires a very broad research perspective to grasp the relationships and interdependencies affecting the further development of transport in the sector itself and in its surroundings.

    Barbara Pawłowska

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